Virtual machines virtualize the hardware and containers virtualize the operating system kernels.


    • Do not emulate any hardware and do not need to boot up.
    • Do not require operating system installation.
    • Take up much less space.
    • Can run only one app at a time (by design).
    • Can interact with their hosts.

      Virtual Machines:

      • Uses the hypervisor to emulate real hardware.
      • Can take up a lot of space.
      • Require you to install/configure operating system.
      • Can run multiple apps at the same time.
      • Cannot interact with their hosts.

      Pros of Docker Containers:

      • Portability: The containers can run on any system which has Docker installed which makes it easy to move the application from one environment to another.
      • Lightweight: The containers take less resources in comparison to virtual machines, which makes it easier to deploy applications in resource-constrained environments.
      • Efficiency: A single host can manage multiple containers while launching and stopping containers significantly quicker than virtual machines.
      • Isolation: It is feasible to run many containers on the same host without worrying about application conflicts since containers provide an isolation level that is suitable for many applications.

      Cons of Docker Containers:

      • Security: Containers are vulnerable to security risks that target the host operating system since they rely on the host operating system for security.
      • Persistence: Data must be stored in an external storage solution or a separate volume because containers do not by default persist data.
      • Complexity: Especially when it comes to network and storage management, managing a large number of containers may be difficult and complex.

      Pros of Virtual Machines:

      • Isolation: Virtual machines provide a high level of isolation between the host and guest operating systems, enabling multiple virtual machines to run on the same host without risk of application incompatibilities.
      • Compatibility: It is feasible to run legacy apps that may not be compatible with the host operating system because virtual machines can run any operating system.
      • Security: Applications and data security are made simpler by the ability of virtual machines to be segregated from the host operating system and other virtual machines.
      • Persistence: Virtual machines persist data by default, making it easier to manage data for long-term storage.

        Cons of Virtual Machines:

        • Resource Utilization: Virtual machines consume more resources compared to containers, making them less efficient for resource-constrained environments.
        • Management Overhead: Virtual machines require more management overhead compared to containers, making it necessary to install and configure guest operating systems, virtual network interfaces, and virtual storage devices.
        • Performance Overhead: Virtual machines introduce a performance overhead compared to running applications directly on the host operating system, making it necessary to balance performance and isolation requirements.

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